Homework 5

CH 6 DQ’s:
1. Why is that athletes who received effort-oriented feedback performed better than those that received ability-oriented feedback?

2. What are some accepted forms of punishment as motivation for an athlete?

3. Why is it that getting paid  to work on an intrinsic interesting activity decreases intrinsic motivation for that particular activity?

4. What is cognitive evaluation theory and how is it applied?

Article DQ’s:
1. What is public posting by definition and example, and what makes it so affective?

2. Can you explain what a multiple baseline design is and why is it the best method of use for this study?

3. What is the purpose of an interobserver agreement (IOA) and when is it recommended to be used in a research study?

4. Why did the public posting of behaviors cause the tennis players to change their behaviors slightly, if not completely? Was it shame, humiliation, self-improvement or something else?

Homework 4

CH 5 DQ’s:
1. Decompetition is defined as opponents seeing each other as rivals towards success, is that not what competition is meant to be?

2. What is more important, win or goal orientations or does it depend on the situation?

3. Although boys and girls have different experiences in competitive sport, is the competitive effort shown by either different?

4. After reading about the benefits of using cooperation and competition in teaching youth I wonder which of the two is more important or is one ever more important than the other?

Homework 3

CH 4 Reading DQ’s:
1. In this chapter I read about stress and the different reasons we experience them, but what I want to know is if all stress is the same or are there different levels of stress?

2. Is social physique anxiety the reason that some athletes starve themselves and suffer from anorexia?

3. How is it that the combination of arousal and state anxiety can affect a person’s attention field in many ways and how is that possible?

4. In reading about how to recognize arousal and state anxiety signs there is a long list of symptoms, is it possible for these symptoms to exist without an increase in stress and anxiety? How accurate do these symptoms detect the increase?

Article DQ’s:
1. Can you elaborate and provide an example of self-presentation?

2. Since 1924 the home team has won the first, but lost the last in a World Series more often than losing the first and winning the last. What is the cause for this difference?

3. In this study it talks of one of two reasons why the home team losses, either they play poorly (choke) or the visiting team plays unusually well. How do you decide what the cause for the visiting team winning is? Aren’t both options in someway the same or co-related?

4. When NBA players miss a shot/free throw are they performing poorly on their own part or are they distracted by the audience making noise in order for them to miss?

Homework 2

CH 3 Reading DQ’s:
1. When people fail under pressure they most often attribute that failure to not being confident enough, but in this chapter over confidence isn’t a good thing either. Why is being overly confident a bad thing?

2. What is it about coaches attitude, due to personal issues, that influences athletes without knowing they are the cause to feel blame or fault? Do these athletes know that they have been doing something wrong, like not trying hard enough, or is it just plain empathy that causes this feeling?

3. I’ve noticed in myself that when its extremely hot I feel sluggish and tire easily. What is it about the climate that affects motivation and can this be overcome?

4. What differs in a persons mind to accept failure as learned helplessness or as a challenge they can overcome through continued effort?

Homework 1

CH 2 Reading DQ’s:
1. What are some examples of how the psychodynamic approach is used/applied in practice?

2. What is the difference between the interactional approach and the phenomenological approach?

3. Which measurement of personality is the most accurate (Trait & State Measures, Situation-Specific Measures and Sport-Specific Measures) and why?

4. How do Nature vs Nurture and Gravitation vs Change differ from one another?

Article DQ’s:
1. Can you elaborate more on the TOPS measurement? How was the measurement performed, types of questions and the accuracy of the test?

2. Investigators concluded that no child succeeds unless he or she is supported by caring adults. What about those that had faced more negativity than positive reinforcement, but were able to use the negativity to fuel them to success? Is the support of one adult enough to succeed?

3. This study labels sports adversity to being a reinforcement for improvement and sportsmanship, but can’t it also affect the athlete in a negative form?

4. What would be the best way to increase the number of athletes surveyed and interviewed without extremely increasing the time needed to perform such research and keep its validity? Is there a better way to replicate this research?